Branding fundamentals

why our brands important let’s take a
look at one of the best brands in the

world coca-cola the total market value
of the company is around a hundred and

seventy five billion dollars but one
asset in particular makes up about 75

billion of that and it’s not the secret
recipe it’s the brand brands are both a

strategic as well as a financial asset a
strong brand creates customer loyalty

and that increases the value of your
company value which can grow if you

continue to invest in the brand there
are many other benefits of brands brands

allow you to set higher prices for your
products and services people associate

higher quality to branded products and
they’ll pay more than for a generic

version even when the two products are
identical why because they trust the

branded product more brands make and
keep their promises once your product is

branded you typically earn a higher
market share while lowering your cost of

sales loyal customers don’t need to be
marketed to as much with an established

brand it’s easier to launch new products
when consumers see the brand’s logo on a

new product they instantly associate the
brand promise to that new product from

day one there are other benefits of
brands than just the marketing

advantages for example studies show that
companies with great brands have lower

employee turnover popular brands help
companies recruit the most talented and

passionate employees brands creates
status and esteem for your company in

the minds of industry leaders community
leaders the media and financial markets

like Wall Street but despite all these
benefits it may not make sense for you

to create a brand there are certain
business situations where it would be a

waste of money for example in completely
new markets where there are very few if

any customers you’d be smarter to invest
your resources in growing awareness and

interest in the category first if you’re
already the

a leader with most of the market share
creating a brand probably won’t pay off

if you’re in a highly fragmented
industry with hundreds or even thousands

of small competitors a brand may not be
able to reach enough customers to make

it worthwhile if you’re a business is
such that you have only a handful of

customers perhaps even one customer like
the government branding won’t do much so

take a look at your situation before you
jump right into it but if your business

depends on creating loyal repeat
customers a strong brand is the surest

way to do it


the branding process has five steps
first we have to define the brand and

everything that goes into it a brand is
a promise so we have to clearly define

what that promise is and the core values
behind it

think of the values as the DNA of the
brand at this step we also define how

the brand links to your overall business
and other brands that you may have

brands don’t exist in isolation so we
have to give them a home so to speak

somewhere in your portfolio we also have
to define what are called brand drivers

brand drivers define how the core values
will be manifested into the marketing

mix or key business processes that
support the brand it’s all the things

associated with a brand that help you
translate its value into actions the

next step of the branding process is to
position the brand essentially we are

shaping how customers think about the
brand we identify who those customers

are what benefits they seek from your
products and services and what they

currently believe about those products
and services versus the competition at

this step we’re making the direct link
between the products value proposition

and the brand promise
once you define the brand promise and

how its position in the market place you
need to express the brand imagine the

brand as a person a person needs a name
a personality in an identity in terms of

what they look like you do the same for
brands at this step we create brand

names and logos to help customers easily
recognize the brand and remember the

promise that it delivers at this stage
it’s time to build awareness of the

brand and put it to work for you
we do that by communicating it and we do

that both internally to our own
organization as well as externally to

the market why internally your employees
and distributors play a critical role in

delivering the promise they create and

products and services that deliver
benefits that customers expect given the

promise the brand has made keeping a
brand strong means we have to

communicate continuously and most
importantly consistently to reinforce

the promise in people’s minds if you
don’t brands lose their value and that

leads us to the final step of the brand
building process measure you want to

measure the value of the brand or what
we call brand equity it’s what you

accrue when you develop promote and
deliver an authentic brand promise as

brand equity increases company value
increases you also measure the brand’s

performance is it living up to the
promise and isn’t doing what you

expected it to for your business the
brand building process takes time and

money but if you do it right you’ll
create strong healthy brands that make

your business more successful

let’s start building a brand first we
have to identify the values of the brand

remember that a brand is a promise and
underneath that promise must be a

supporting set of values they’re like a
foundation underneath a home for example

if I make a promise to you it’s because
I believe certain things are important

otherwise I wouldn’t make the promise
the same is true of brands that we

created marketing think of brand values
as the key behaviors or virtues of the

brand that need to be expressed
consistently day in and day out taken

together these values form the essence
or the theme of the brand they’re like a

belief system of the brand determining
the brand values starts by understanding

the overall marketing strategy of your

what kind of products and services do
you offer what are the key trends and

new opportunities in your markets who
are your customers and who are your

competitors given that what is your
overall value proposition in the

marketplace you’ve got to have a solid
marketing strategy before you can build

a solid branding strategy the two are
closely linked for this course I’m going

to use a hypothetical company that wants
to create a brand for one of its new

products let’s assume we’re in the watch
business we’re coming out with the new

line of smart watches that integrate
with other tech products like smart

phones let’s say that our strategy is to
create a watch ideally suited for

families but not just families in
general we are targeting the parents

specifically we want to position our
watch as the ideal watch for moms and

dads for now let’s call it the parent
watch remember that’s the name of the

brand not necessarily the name of the
product itself now given our marketing

strategy we want to create a brand that
delivers this promise of being the ideal

watch for parents we start by
identifying the key values that this new

brand must have for this promise to have
any meaning to it so

I start by listing beliefs that people
might have about parents for example

parents are special being a parent is an
important role in the life of many moms

and dads being a parent is hard work
parents do everything they can to help

their families by creating this list I’m
looking for one or a collection of some

of these to shape and form the main
theme of my new brand I want to create a

sentence that conveys what the brand is
all about let’s try this the parent

watch celebrates Parenthood by helping
parents be the very best they can be

I like this it’s aspirational it’s
linked directly to my strategy and it

has a strong emotional appeal we can
always revise and fine-tune this later

but for now let’s stick with this as the
core purpose of the parent watch brand

both why it exists and what it believes
take a look at the brand’s you have now

or the brand you want to create ask
yourself these questions what is the

belief system underneath those brands is
it linked to your marketing strategy is

it clear what this brand stands for now
and what it wants to be in the future

building a strong foundation is the
crucial first step to bring your brand

to life

a brand’s values form the foundation of
the brand but now on top of that

foundation you need to build more about
the definition of the brand think of it

as expanding and stretching it out you
do that by creating brand drivers brand

drivers are more detailed in descriptive
aspects of the brand they come in

different forms they could be attributes
of the brand itself

they could be functional or emotional
benefits that the brand delivers they

could be self expressive benefits in
other words what the customer is saying

about themselves when they consume the
brand to create brand drivers make an

exhaustive list of phrases or sentences
about the brand that stretched the

brand’s core purpose don’t worry too
much about the wording of these and

don’t try to filter them later on you’ll
group them into similar categories and

that’s where you’ll edit them to get the
most relevant brand drivers let’s go

back to our case study the new brand for
a SmartWatch that’s ideal for moms and

dads we call it the parent watch its
core value is the parent watch

celebrates Parenthood by helping parents
be the very best they can be given that

what else might this new brand be about
let’s start with the list we had already

parent watch believes that parents are
special being a parent may be the most

important role in a person’s life being
a parent is hard work

parents do everything they can to help
their families let’s create more by

asking ourselves what else goes into
being a great parent let’s write these

from the parents point of view parent
watch helps me do the impossible by

balancing tasks and getting it all done
in the day it helps me protect my family

it helps me perform my duties at home
work and everywhere else it helps me

stay connected to my kids
it helps me teach my kids important life

lessons it may
said fun to be a mom or dead wearing

parent watch tells the world that I care
about my family above all else do you

see what’s going on here
we’re creating a list of specific things

that are important to our target
audience then we take those and turn

them into attributes of the brand itself
or a benefit that the brand delivers

when you do this for your brand you
should have several dozen of these try

to create as long a list as possible
then group into categories such as

functional benefits the basic job that
the product does emotional benefits how

a product makes a consumer feel economic
benefits how a product saves time and

money self expressive benefits how a
product makes us appear to others other

types of benefits such as benefits to
society or to the environment now once

they’re grouped into categories we look
for ways to refine or combine them into

a more coherent list for example these
two drivers parent watch helps me do the

impossible by balancing tasks and
getting it all done in a day

and parent watch helps me perform my
duties at home work and everywhere else

it seems similar perhaps I could tighten
these up into one phrase such as parent

watch helps me balance multiple tasks at
work home and everywhere else brand

drivers put more meaning into the brand
we call them drivers because these are

the ideas that you use to express and
communicate what your brand is all about


so what is it that you actually brand
well that’s kind of a trick question

you don’t brand things rather you create
a brand with its core promise and list

of associations as we did in the last
two videos then you attach something to

that brand promise like a product or a
company name by attaching that product

or a company name to the brand your
customers associated with the brand now

I know that may seem like a subtle point
but here’s why I make it don’t think of

branding like taking an iron and burning
it onto the side of a product or it’s

packaged like Cowboys do when they brand
livestock that’s the single most common

mistake people make when doing branding
they think you can just slap a logo and

a clever name on the side of a product
and voila

here’s my new brand to be a savvy
branding professional you want to avoid

this mistake and instead follow a
discipline step by step process with a

set of tools to create and manage your
brand’s that’s what this course is all

now once you’ve created the core brand

promise and list of associations the
correct question to ask is what kinds of

things can I attach to the brand the
answer may surprise you

we’ve already mentioned products inside
this bottle is fizzy brown water with

the syrupy sweet taste when we associate
it with the coca-cola brand the consumer

memorizes this association for future
reference every time a consumer drinks

what’s inside here they instantly recall
the brand promise and subconsciously

think to themselves promise made promise
kept that’s why we sometimes call a

brand a locus of emotions it’s all the
emotions inside that are triggered by a

brand that define it a brand is a memory
jugger a shortcut so to speak to make

that memory jogging a bit easier we give
the brand a certain look and sometimes a

name when you wrap that name and
look around the product consumers have a

much easier time making that connection
maybe that’s why it feels like we are

branding a product like using a branding
iron on livestock it’s not only products

that can be branded you might want to
brand just one feature of that product

Hertz the car rental company brands it’s
gold club an exclusive club for loyal

you can also brand a single ingredient

within the product my favorite example
is when Intel created the now iconic

Intel Inside brand most people have no
idea what the Intel thing actually did

or how it worked
it didn’t matter as long as the computer

they were about to buy had Intel Inside
they were satisfied promise made promise

kept if your product has a unique
technology especially if it’s something

you own perhaps with patents you can
also associated it with a brand Toyota

for example branded its hybrid synergy
drive as part of its fleet of

eco-friendly cars can you brand services
absolutely a service is the same as a

product in that they are both benefit
delivery vehicles Google for example

offers a wide range of services that are
branded in fact an entire company can be

branded take Starbucks for example you
can also create a string of brands for

example Amazon Kindle delivers books
using whisper net technology a branded

company a product and Technology
all-in-one you may be thinking hey wait

a minute what if you take this too far
that’s a good question if you’re not

careful you may end up with what I call
brand chaos where your brand too many

things in a way that might confuse the
customer to avoid that take a look at

your current brands or brands you want
to create then try to identify what

you’ve actually branded a product a
feature and so on

good brand builders then start to think
about how these different brands exist

  Logo Design Process With a Client

together to deliver value for the

brands need a home a place to live they
not only need a place to live but you

also need to determine the relationship
the brand has with other brands in that

home you do this by creating a brand
architecture think of architecture the

same as you would when building a house
the architect decides how many rooms

you’ll have where they’re situated in
the overall structure of the home and

the role of each room bathroom kitchen
and so on to create a brand architecture

we do the same thing now there are many
formats and models for this but here’s a

general way to think about your options
when building a brand architecture first

you could create what’s called a house
of brands each brand stands on its own

and has no relationship with the others
consumers know the names of the brands

but they don’t know the name of the
company that owns them in other words

they don’t know the name of the house
itself your company but just the rooms

inside the Procter & Gamble Company is
probably the best example of this it

owns many familiar brands that we use
every day like Crest toothpaste Tide

laundry detergent and Febreze but most
consumers won’t know that P&G owns these

brands or that these brands are owned by
the same company at the other end of the

spectrum is the branded house in this
approach the company is the brand all

products and services within that
company are associated with that single

company brand but they themselves don’t
exist as a brand when you think about a

company like caterpillar your mind
conjures up images of tractors and heavy

equipment but you probably can’t think
of a product brand within caterpillar

it’s what we call a master brand because
it governs over all the company’s

products and services BMW is another
great example now in between these two

architectures is a third
it’s called a blended house think of it

as a mix of the two a little bit of a
master brand with a few individual

brands connected to it a good example is
Marriott International the hospitality

it has a strong master brand Marriott

along with 18 sub brands like courtyard
and Residence Inn it’s a nice approach

because consumers associate many good
qualities with the Marriott name but

then each Hotel property has its own
brand promise for specific market

segments when you combine these with the
master brand Courtyard by Marriott

consumers instantly understand that
unique promise pretty cool

so which approach is best well it
depends on your strategy the brand that

house approach is more cost-effective
because you’re spending money to build

one single brand but this limits where
you can expand it’d be strange if

caterpillar wanted to go into the food
business for example a house of brands

is expensive because you have to build
each brand from scratch but then you

have total freedom to go into any new
market without affecting the other

brands P&G for example can expand into
just about anything many companies use

the blended approach to give themselves
the best of both worlds building the

brand architecture helps customers
understand your brands the way you want

them to and that’s a real advantage to
building brand equity

brands can take on a life of their own
almost to the point where they seem like

a person and just like us they can have
their own unique personality our final

step in the define stage of the brand
building process is to create this

personality or what we call a brand
persona given the brand’s promise you

give the brand a set of human-like
characteristics that your customers

would expect from someone who keeps this
promise now why does this matter well

your target audience will better
understand your brand if they can

associate it with or think of it as a
human being

brands with a personality stand out more
we tend to like them more and most

importantly we want to maintain a
relationship with it in marketing that’s

a huge advantage because that
relationship causes customers to be more

loyal and that’s what valuable brands do
to create a brand persona

you have to create a list of personality
traits that shape the overall

personality of our brand now various
researchers in the field of marketing

have studied brand personalities to find
out what kinds of traits might be

available to use one of the most
recognized in this field is dr. Jennifer

occur in her classic research report
titled dimensions of brand personality

she outlines a framework of personality
traits that brands can take on the five

core dimensions are sincerity excitement
competence sophistication and ruggedness

now within each of these are more
detailed traits for example under

sincerity we would find down-to-earth
honest genuine and friendly

now these traits are further broken down
into sub traits for example under the

trait friendly we would find the sub
traits of warm happy cheerful and caring

now out of this long list of dozens of
personality traits our goal is to select

a handful that create this unique brand
persona let’s go back to our case study

the parent watch let’s take a look at
our core value the parent watch

celebrates Parenthood by helping moms
and dads be the very best they can be

you also want to look at your long list
of brand drivers taken together ask

yourself if parent watch was a person
how would you describe its personality I

selected the following traits family
oriented caring intelligent reliable

strong wholesome spirited and of course
fun now keep in mind that these are not

intended to be the traits of an ideal
super mom or dad rather these are the

traits of a brand that helps parents
become the ideal super mom or dad do you

see the difference your brand may have
traits that are similar to your target

audiences what’s most important is that
the brand has traits consistent with

someone who would make and keep its
promise that makes the brand more

trusted in authentic speaking of
authenticity and trust where your

customers believe these traits just
because you pick them from a list they

will as long as you carefully selected
them to define someone else besides the

brand that someone else is you and
perhaps your colleagues the people who

ultimately make and keep the promise
authentic brands are those that reflect

the characteristics of the people who
deliver value to the marketplace now

that’s great brand building


creating and defining your brand is only
the first step of the brand building

process at this point the brand is still
an empty vessel empty because you

haven’t made or kept any promises to
customers remember that a brand is a

promise kept over and over to a target
audience to the point that they believe

and trust it trust builds loyalty and
that is your next step to identify the

specific customers that you want your
brand to be relevant to for that we use

a marketing technique called
segmentation segmentation means dividing

the market of potential customers into
similar groupings there are four ways to

do it
demographic segmentation focuses on

physical characteristics of customers
like gender age they’re hided weight

even hair color it’s a very useful way
to segment especially if your brand’s

promise delivers on something related to
a customer characteristic if you’re

marketing shampoo for redheads for
example then you’d want to group your

customers by hair color closely related
to demographic segmentation is

Geographic use this approach when you
want to group people by where they live

or where they work it can also include
things like where they go for certain

activities or where they just hang out
if your brand promise is related to that

this way of grouping customers makes the

most sense
next is behavioral segmentation here we

focus on things that potential customers
do or how they behave it includes things

like purchase behavior lifestyles and
things like how customers use a product

once again it’s the right way to segment
customers if your brand delivers

something of value related to this
behavior for example people who want to

drive fast are going to appreciate
brands that promise speed finally is

attitudinal segmentation this is what
goes on in the customers head about the

benefits they seek group
customers by their needs or benefits

they’re looking for is extremely
powerful because it gets right to the

core of your brand’s promise for example
if you’re building a new brand for an

automobile you’d want to group customers
around benefits such as fuel economy

luxury eco-friendly or status selecting
the right segmentation approach is

critical because it helps you with the
next two steps of the brand building

process Express and communicate

branding is about making and keeping a
promise over and over to the point where

consumers trust you and they become
loyal what do you promise and when do

you promise it you answer these
questions by analyzing your potential

customers when people buy products and
services they’re buying a collection of

benefits you can categorize these
benefits into three types functional

benefits refer to a product’s physical
performance for example when buying a

car functional benefits include size of
the engine passenger seating or how the

car handles economic benefits are
related to saving money or saving time

with the car economic benefits would
include the miles per gallon annual

maintenance cost or the cars reliability
finally our emotional benefits these are

related to the psychological feelings
you get when using a product for a car

it would include things like status or
self esteem customers buy things for a

mix of these benefits but some are more
important than others if you know what’s

most important to them you can appeal to
that need when deciding on your brand

promise you can also raise this sense of
importance they place on another factor

and focus your brand on that instead you
also want to understand the steps

customers take when buying something
that will help you shape the overall

experience they have with your brand and
decide the best point to make the

promise typically those steps are as
follows first is need recognition phase

this is where customers realize that
they want something the next step is

information search once customers feel a
need to have something they start

gathering information about solutions
for that need once a customer gathers

the information they go to the next step
which is to evaluate the alternatives

customers make choices based on what
features are

important in which brand does the best
job in delivering those features it’s

critical that you communicate your
brand’s promise at this point eventually

the customer will narrow their choices
down to one brand and go to the purchase

phase finally is the post purchase
behavior phase once customers start

using the product or service they
compare the results with their

expectations that the brand deliver on
the promise how did the product make

them feel when they used it this phase
is also critical because customers will

form opinions about your brand and share
their experiences good or bad with other

customers great brand builders know they
have a role to play in each step of the

customer buying process they know where
these steps take place when they take

place and who’s involved with these
insights you’re ready to develop an

effective brand experience

perhaps the most central idea in all of
marketing is that of positioning a

company’s value proposition is the
single-minded claim that it makes to

change the customers mind and cause them
to do something that something could be

to buy a product or to try a product or
to pay a certain price or to visit a

website or just to think about your
brand and its benefits in a certain way

how you position your product in the
market will ultimately determine the

overall promise you make to create your
brand now let’s make a distinction here

in a marketing plan you create a value
proposition that is this central piece

of your marketing strategy so how does
that relate to brand positioning are

they the same well not necessarily but
they’re closely related the brand

promise is essentially your overall
value proposition it’s a broad

definitive statement of the bundle of
benefits to customers by the brand it’s

a clear articulation of precisely what
it is that gives the brand an edge over

competitors think of brand positioning
as the long-term strategic positioning

your marketing strategy value
proposition is more like a short-term

tactical positioning let’s do an example
to see this connection using our case

study of the parent watch we know that
our overall brand positioning is the

parent watch celebrates Parenthood by
helping moms and dads be the very best

they can be now by design we’ve set that
at a pretty high level but what if

you’re about to launch a new product or
perhaps just introduce a new feature on

an existing product for that you need a
more tactical short-term positioning for

example let’s assume our parent watch
has a new feature that allows us to SMS

people automatically moms or dads can
use it to create reminders for their

kids that come directly from them via
text messaging I’m not sure kids would

like it but I bet parents would
so how do we position this new feature

for ideas on that you go back to your
brand drivers recall that brand drivers

are more detailed in descriptive aspects
of the brand so let’s look over our list

created in Chapter two now here’s one
that might work parent watch helps me

stay connected to my kids
nice our new SMS feature becomes a

credible reason to believe this value
proposition and therein lies the

connection between brand strategy and
marketing strategy think of these value

propositions designed around your brand
drivers as RT B’s or reasons to believe

for the overall brand strategy promises
made promises kept

so take a look at your brand’s what
features and benefits of your products

and services are you emphasizing in your
marketing strategy then look at your

brand drivers to find the ones that
connect best to those benefits that

helps your target audience believe the
brand is doing its job well and can be

trusted to do it in the future


at this point in the brand-building
process you’ve defined the brand in

terms of its values drivers and persona
you’ve positioned the brand in the

market and linked it to your marketing
strategy now you’re ready to move into

the next phase which is how you express
the brand to do that you create a name a

visual look and feel for the brand and
you create a total customer experience

for the target audience when they
encounter the brand in this video I’ll

review the important considerations you
make when naming the brand the name you

select for your brand should do the
following reflect the values and purpose

of the brand create an association with
the brand’s persona be easy to say be

unique and memorable now before coming
up with names you need to consider what

it is that you’re branding a company a
product or service a feature within that

product or service or perhaps a
technology how do all your brand’s fit

together in other words what is your
brand architecture which we covered in

Chapter two let’s do an example with our
case study for this example I need to

create a hypothetical company that I’ll
call the California watch company it

makes a variety of watches in these
categories luxury high-end watches sport

watches for running biking and so on
smart watches for technology lovers and

family lifestyle watches my brand
architecture is house of brands so these

four categories of watches are branded
independently of each other and not

  What Is Branding

connected with the main company name
let’s focus on our new line of family

lifestyle watches beginning with our
first entry into the market the parent

watch helping moms and dads be the very
best they can be my product is a

SmartWatch that connects with a
customer’s smartphone so it can do a lot

of things my strategy is to offer one
model of watch but in different styles

and colors
customers can load different functions

into the watch depending on the ages of
their children apps for babies toddlers

and so on
pretty cool watch do you remember the

brand’s persona one of the traits was
intelligent that seems to fit so given

the tight connection between my brand
and the product that delivers on the

promise I’d be smart to name my product
the same as my brand in this case that

makes the most sense for my target
audience once they understand my brand’s

promise they’ll associate that promise
with the watch itself if I name it the

same otherwise they might get confused
the name parent watch is connected to

the values and purpose it’s unique and
easy to say and it seems to fit my

brand’s personality the name strikes me
as strong reliable but at the same time

fun I like it
there are times though when it makes

sense to come up with a name that is
completely new with no literal meaning

the name Sony is a completely made-up
name the name Apple also has no

connection with the company’s products
and services in that case you have to

select the name then communicate the
name in its Associated values and

purpose so that people start to make the
connection it’s usually harder and more

expensive to do but it can yield a
powerful brand name that sticks in the

minds of consumers and that’s an
effective way to create and keep


the look and feel of the brand is what
consumers see when they encounter it

it’s like a visual identity system a way
for customers to instantly recognize

when the brand is present to create the
visual identity of the brand you’ll need

the following elements first you’ll want
some type of distinctive logo or symbol

a logo can take many forms it can be an
object that represents your brand a good

example is the Apple logo it can be an
abstract symbol like the Nike swoosh or

it can be a word mark which is the words
of your company or brand name set in a

specific way the Google logo is
considered a word mark to create a logo

it’s best to hire the services of a
professional graphic designer

the designer will need to know the brand
values the core promise the brand

drivers the persona and of course the
brand name taken together these elements

will help the designer create a graphic
look that matches what the brand stands

for once the logo is created you’ll need
to have your designer create different

versions of it we call these logo
lockups while your master logo should

always be rendered consistently you need
variations of it for different

placements and usage for example you may
need color and black and white

variations or you may need versions for
small spaces like a business card or a

large version for the side of a building
your designer should also create a color

palette for the brand some of these
colors are used for the logo itself but

you should also have complementary
colors that can be used along with the

logo these complementary colors might be
used in advertising or perhaps in

product packaging or even used for the
product itself your designer should also

help you select specific typefaces for
the brand a distinctive font helps

strengthen the identity of the brand
along with the

you should also have standard
typographic treatments your typographic

identity should include specific ways of
handling key types of texts such as

headlines or how you write URL addresses
your brand identity should include a

consistent style for images all photos
and images used with the brand logo

should have a consistent look and feel
image guidelines should also define when

and how certain types of images are used
will you use photography or

illustrations or both will they be black
and white or color Nike for example

relies on large close-up high contrast
images to capture attention and create a

distinctive feel finally you wanted to
find a consistent tone for the way you

say things it’s like creating a voice
for the brand this applies to everything

from headlines in a printed to the tone
of a press release outline the specific

language and words that can be used for
example should the tone be formal or

more conversational that depends of
course on your brand’s persona so take a

look at the brand’s you manage and check
to see that each of these elements are

in sync with your overall brand essence
these elements must work together in

harmony to create a winning brand

when your customers buy your products
and services they go through a distinct

set of steps sort of a process we call
it the customer experience or sometimes

the brand experience when it’s related
to a brand each step of the experience

is called a touch point where you can
figuratively speaking touch the customer

and reinforce the brand promise this
forms a tighter more loyal relationship

with the customer the first step is to
define the touch points for the typical

customer first is need recognition this
is where the customers realize they want

something the next step is information
search where they gather information

from a wide variety of sources this is a
critical step because this is when a

customer is most receptive to your brand
message once a customer gathers

information they evaluate the
alternatives based on what features are

most important and which brand does the
best job in delivering those features

eventually they go to the purchase phase
where they actually buy the product now

you might think that the buying process
ends here with the final purchase but

there’s one last step called the post
purchase behavior phase once customers

start using the product they compare the
results with their expectations that the

product work is expected how did the
product make them feel when they used it

what do they say to others about their
experience once we define the touch

points we go back to our list of brand
drivers our goal is to select a driver

from the list that we can emphasize at
each touch point we have to decide where

the touch point happens when it happens
and what to say to the customer that

relates to that brand driver now it’s a
bit tricky but it’s a key ingredient of

successful brand building let’s try it
with our case study the parent watch for

the need recognition step I want to use
the driver being a parent may be the

most important role in a person’s life
I’ll use this driver in my advertising

because of the strong
emotional message within it for

information search and evaluate the
alternatives I’m going to emphasize all

the benefits of the parent watch like
protecting my family

stay connected to my kids and so on I’ll
do this on the brand’s website when

customers buy the product I’ll emphasize
that parents are special we’ll create a

store environment in a shopping
experience that makes moms and dads feel

great about being a parent and finally
in the post purchase phase I’ll drive

home the message wearing parent watch
tells the world that I care about my

family above all else
perhaps I’ll do this with text messages

directly to the parent watch or perhaps
follow up with direct mail I want to

reinforce that the customer made a smart

great marketers know they have a role to
play in each step of the customer

experience they know where these steps
take place when they take place and

who’s involved with these insights
you’re ready to communicate the brand to

the marketplace


branding is all about making and keeping
a promise as a brand builder you’re the

one who makes the promise but who keeps
it is it the product service well if so

then who is it that stands behind your
products and services

it’s your employees and partners like
distributors who keep the promise brand

delivery boils down to people and if
they don’t understand the brand they’re

likely to struggle trying to keep that

employees have to believe in the brand
and live it every time they come in

contact with a customer in this video
let me share with you some ways to

effectively communicate your brand
internally there are two parts to this

first you have to train your team and
then you need to consistently reinforce

it otherwise people stop believing that
the brand is important when you develop

training programs about the brand you
should consider developing different

programs for different types of
employees frontline employees for

example deal with customers every day
the training program for them will be

much different than for people back at
headquarters including your senior

executives ideally every employee is
trained new ones and especially old ones

existing employees might have to change
their mindset a lot to embrace and

believe in the brand take an airline
next time you fly watch the Airlines

employees listen to what they say
imagine how training on the brand would

be different for pilots flight
attendants baggage handlers as well as

reservation agents who sell tickets
every job in every contact with

customers is different so the training
should match that so what do you train

employees need to know the brand promise
how it links to the company’s values the

drivers customers will experience when
they encounter the brand the brand

identity including look and feel the
name and of course the persona

importantly they need to know how they
should think feel and act what words

come out of their mouth what actions do
they take to deliver the promise you

have to help them
make that bridge from the brand promise

to their actions or they won’t be able
to truly live the brand training is

important but it’s not enough you must
reinforce it to keep the brand closely

tied to the culture of the company first
of all make sure the brand identity is

visible throughout the company later
I’ll talk about how to create branded

spaces like your company’s front lobby
as a way to reinforce the brand every

time the employee walks through it
they’re reminded of the brand

most companies appoint a brand champion
and a team of brand ambassadors these

are the influential company employees
who represent what the brand stands for

they can help others understand how
their words and deeds linked to the

brand and its drivers speaking of
employees many companies focus on hiring

the right people from the very start
given the characteristics of the brand

what characteristics of potential
employees would best align with the

brand your Human Resources partner may
be able to help you with that perhaps

the best way to reinforce the brand
internally is to do a great job

delivering on the promise externally
when employees see that the company

consistently lives up to its promises
even in tough times it strengthens their

resolve and commitment to the brand so
take a look at how your company

communicates internally to its employees
good brand builders look for these

everyday opportunities to reinforce the

one of the most important steps in the
brand building process is to create a

brand book just as the name implies the
brand book is the complete story of the

brand and all the elements that go into
it it establishes strict guidelines on

every aspect of how a company’s brand
will be managed this affects everything

from how the logo can be used the look
of your website how social media is used

advertising product design and so on a
basic brand book should include an

overview of brand values the core
promise the drivers and persona low

those specifications and examples of how
to use it logo lock ups for different

uses the color palette font styles
typography image and photography

guidelines and writing style and the
tone of voice now a good brand book is a

reference document to help employees and
your marketing agencies execute the

brand properly that’s why it’s sometimes
called a style guide you might also

include things like brochure guidelines
specifications for signage and outdoor

advertising design layouts for a print
and web based projects your store design

social media guidelines even your
letterhead and business card design now

be sure to include visual or written
examples of each of these the more

detailed information you include in the
brand book the more helpful that will be

to make sure the brand is managed
consistently while these guidelines are

important a great brand book goes even
further it could be used to train your

entire team
it could help employees understand the

brand’s essence it could be created in a
way that inspires people to believe in

the brand it might include stories about
the brand and how it served its

customers it could outline brand goals
and how it links to the company’s

overall strategy a brand book can help
employees know what it means to live the

brand day in and day out great branding
is about May

and keeping promises in a consistent way
a brand book is an essential tool to

help you do just that

a very important component of branding
is the product or service that you put

in the marketplace they need to do their
jobs in delivering the benefits that

were promised now keep in mind they’re
not the only things that have to live up

to the brand’s promise every touchpoint
in the customer experience can

potentially play a role but it’s usually
the products or services that are the

focal point of your branding effort that
means you must teach the people who

create your products and services about
the brand take a look at your current

products you may notice perhaps the most
common problem when getting into brand

building the benefits that your products
deliver currently are not the same ones

promised by the brand oops
in other words there’s a gap between

product performance and the brand and it
can happen in two ways your product may

be under featured or it may be over
featured here’s how to find out make a

list of all the key features on your
product or service then for each feature

write down the main benefit that the
feature delivers remember that benefits

come in different forms functional
economic emotional self expressive and

so on then with that list of benefits
take out your long list of brand drivers

for each benefit try to connect it with
at least one of the drivers ask yourself

does the benefit link to or somehow
support any one of the brand drivers

let’s do a quick example with our case
study the parent watch let’s imagine the

watch has an app that automatically
sends SMS text messages to kids to

remind them to do their homework I can
scan down the list of our brand drivers

and yes I see two on the list that
seemed to connect with this feature the

parent watch helps me stay connected to
my kids and the other driver that fits

it is this parents do everything they
can to help their families now if you

find that many of your features and
benefits do not connect to your brand

drivers you have a problem your product
is over featured with unrelated benefits

and this will confuse your customers in
this case you need to go back to your

  Pricing Design Work & Creativity

development team and start creating a
new version of the product that closes

this gap you may find that the features
and benefits on the product only cover a

small number of drivers once again you
have a gap that needs to be closed and

you do that with new product development
take a look at your product development

pipeline and do the same analysis you
may be able to collaborate with your

development team to modify these
products now to be more aligned with the

brand promise if so those products will
do a better job at keeping the promise

that the brand has made now don’t forget
that when I say the word product the

same applies to any service that you
offer in the marketplace a

well-developed brand informs how your
products and services will perform what

they look like and how they deliver an
experience consistent with the brand’s



to make a promise you have to
communicate it the key is to select

those communication channels that are
most consistent with the essence of the

brand it’s authentic persona a simple
framework for this is answering the

questions who what why where and how
first you have to decide on why you want

to communicate are you telling the
market your overall strategic brand

positioning the core brand promise or
are you building tactical awareness

around some new feature or benefit of
the product if so this type of campaign

would link directly to your tactical
marketing positioning during the

positioning step of the brand building
process we answered the next question

who that of course is your target
audience you identify the specific

customers that you want your brand
message to be relevant to you group your

customers using one of four segmentation
approaches demographic Geographic

behavioral or attitudinal the one you
use depends on what you’re about to

communicate if it’s a new feature you
may want to use behavioral segmentation

if it’s about an emotional benefit of
your brand attitudinal is likely the

best choice narrowing your target
audience makes your communications

campaign more efficient next is what you
are communicating and for that you need

to refer to your long list of brand
drivers the brand drivers give ideas

about the specific message you want to
include in the communications pick the

brand driver that is best suited for
what you’re announcing to the market and

the target audience you’ve selected
using brand drivers this way in all your

communications reinforces the brand
promise and builds brand equity where

you communicate depends on several
factors remember the customer experience

touch points and the steps of the buying
process in Chapter four select which

step is most relevant to the brand
driver and what you’re announcing to the

market you may want to reach the target
audience in their homes places of work

during leisure time or perhaps online
the entire customer experience gives you

many options and finally is how you
communicate the media channel you select

depends on the target audience how many
of them you want to reach the complexity

of the message you’re sending and how
frequently they need to hear the message

marketers have a wide choice of
traditional media including television

radio print advertising outdoor
billboards and digital medium which

includes social media websites and
mobile channels each type of media has

advantages and disadvantages TV
commercials for example can reach

millions of people but it’s expensive
billboards on the other hand are not

that expensive but they’re limited in
what they can achieve it’d be hard to

explain how to use a complicated product
in a billboard whichever channel you use

be sure to refer to your brand book to
make sure all the design elements and

tone of the communication are on brand

social media is an essential part of any
brand building effort no matter what

business you’re in consumers expect a
way to learn about your products and

share their experiences with others
online social media is a powerful way to

communicate your value proposition and
enhance your brand the most valuable and

respected brands in the world use
digital channels for brand building

coca-cola for example uses Facebook
Twitter Instagram Tumblr and other

channels and these are all integrated
around its main social platform a

website called coke journey
according to coke its mission is to

inspire moments of optimism and
happiness and build our brands to use

digital channels effectively follow
these guidelines first make sure all the

sites have a common look and feel they
don’t have to be identical in their

design but they must adhere to the
standards defined in your brand book

that means all logos trademarks colors
font styles and typography are exactly

per standard otherwise you may confuse
customers if a social media site doesn’t

look like the brand second be sure all
sites use the same voice of the brand

the tone and style of writing should be
consistent with the brand’s personality

third be sure to define who can and
cannot post things to the various social

media sites it’s essential they be
properly trained on the brand and how to

communicate the brand’s values and how
to comply with the company’s social

media policies finally be sure to
specify the role of each social media

site overall they exist to support the
core brand promise but individually they

might each have a different role and for
that you need to refer to your list of

brand drivers each social media site is
another touch point in the customer

experience and just as you do with your
other touch points you can link each

social media touch point to a different
brand driver let’s do an example

with our case study the parent watch our
overall brand promises the parent watch

celebrates Parenthood by helping moms
and dads be the very best they can be

but I’m going to create my brand’s
Facebook page to be all about this brand

driver how busy parents do the
impossible by balancing tasks and

getting it all done in a day it’ll be
full of helpful tips on all the things

parents do the brand’s Twitter feed will
be about high profile moms and dads and

their successes the Pinterest board on
the other hand will be full of

inspirational quotes about parents and
how important they are to their families

I’ll also create a mobile campaign where
moms and dads can opt-in to receive

helpful tips on teaching their kids
important life lessons pretty cool so

take a look at your digital channels
make sure they adhere to the brand book

that they have a specific role tied to a
brand driver and that they are properly

managed taken together social media
sites create a community of brand loyal

customers who interact with each other
and with your company that’s the

foundation for a strong customer

the packaging around your product is
another great way to communicate your

brand and build equity it’s one touch
point within the total customer

experience but packaging is such an
important touch point because it may be

the first physical encounter your
customer has with the brand it may also

be the last physical encounter they have
right before they buy the product it’s

that last 10 seconds right before the
consumer decides to buy that makes it so

important to get the design of your
packaging right as a brand builder

you’ll want to work closely with your
internal or external design team and

you’ll need to give them guidance on
these three factors first what is the

functional role of the packaging a
products packaging can do a lot of work

it can protect the product that’s inside
while it’s in the store or warehouse

while it’s being shipped as well as when
the products in your customer’s home or

work location the packaging can explain
important information about how to use

the product or any warnings that might
apply it could explain how to store or

care for the product what ingredients
are inside or the price of the product

the packaging might have other roles
such as making the product easy to find

in a store serving as a gift box or
being easy to dispose of or recycle next

you need to decide the key brand and
promotional messages to go on the

packaging take a look at your value
proposition and reasons to believe also

take a look at your list of brand
drivers and review the functional

economic and emotional benefits that the
packaging may be able to convey use the

packaging to reinforce your positioning
and the brand promise here’s an example

from coca-cola look at the various
images on the can a beach ball

sunglasses surfboard barbecue grill hmm
I get it coke means fun at the beach

that brand driver is communicated very
nicely by this simple and clever design

finally you need to give guidance around
the design of the packaging and for this

take a look at your brand book the
packaging most likely will have the

brand name and tagline it should have
the brand’s visual identity including

logos and color schemes but also look at
the brand persona what are the

personality traits of the brand and how
can the packaging be designed to embody

these traits for example take a look at
this packaging from Gatorade even the

bottle itself looks like the distinctive
G and the word Gatorade very clever take

a look at your current product packaging
and compare it to the guidelines in your

brand book is the packaging living up to
all the expectations of the brand could

your packaging take on more
responsibility in the customer

experience great packaging is much more
than a slick protective wrapper around

your product packaging design offers a
unique opportunity in both a consumer

and business to business markets to
influence customers and brand

perceptions leverage to its fullest it
can work hard to create and maintain

long term brand loyalty


to keep your brands healthy you need to
measure their performance on several

factors first what is the basic
awareness of the brand you need to

conduct market research to measure the
percentage of people that recognize the

brand when shown the logo or hear the
name of the brand basic awareness is

especially important within your target
audience so be sure to direct your

marketing research efforts to those
specific customers after a basic

awareness you also want to measure how
well the target audience understands the

brand can they tell you what the brand
stands for do they understand its

distinctive qualities and
characteristics what do they associate

the brand with and how closely does it
match with your core promise and brand

drivers you may have very broad
awareness of the brand but if customers

aren’t understanding it the right way
then you need to go back and either

sharpen the drivers or communicate your
brand more effectively finally you want

to measure how well the brand is
creating customer loyalty and for this

you measure customer retention rates or
repeat purchases or you might measure

how likely they are to recommend the
brand to others if you find yourself

slipping and customer loyalty it could
be a sign of several things first the

brand may be losing its relevance it
might not be delivering benefits that

are important anymore to the customer or
the brand lacks differentiation the

degree to which customers perceive the
brand to have a differentiated

positioning distinctive from the
competition or finally it could be a

problem with consistency in terms of how
well the brand delivers across all the

touch points if you’re inconsistent and
keeping the promise people lose trust

now these are all the external factors
that you measure out in the marketplace

you should also measure a few key
internal indicators for example measure

the clarity that employees have about
what the brand stands for and its values

and positioning how well do your
employees understand the target audience

customer insights and brand drivers your
employees are the ones who keep the

promise so they have to have
a clear understanding of it be sure to

measure the commitment your company has
to the brand in terms of how much

support it gets
is it getting its share of the budgets

and investments needed to keep it strong
our key individuals devoting enough time

to it versus other brands or programs
finally try to assess how well protected

the brand is are other companies
infringing on your trademarks or designs

or others taking unfair advantage of
your brand by violating your patents or

proprietary methods and materials hey
you’ve invested a lot to create and

manage the brand so it’s essential that
you keep others from diluting it

measurement is important if you measure
these factors routinely you’ll be able

to spot trends and head off any problems
with your brand before they happen

measuring brand performance is not
enough you’ve got to actively manage the

health of the brand and keep brand
equity growing but things in the world

around you change and if you’re not
prepared your branding strategy may

derail and you end up losing ground in
the marketplace

sometimes those unexpected events happen
internally the priorities in any

organization are constantly shifting a
change in leadership a new acquisition a

change in strategy or perhaps a sudden
downturn in financial results might

impact your branding efforts a lot
disruptions can occur externally as well

new competitors emerge new regulations
or legal actions might affect your

ability to market a product a bad
customer experience or a product recall

may be going viral on social media sites
consumer trends change and all of these

things might affect your ability to
address the brand from moving forward so

here are some tips to help you cope with
these types of challenges and manage

your brand’s effectively first all
brands should have a brand steward which

is the single individual responsible for
managing brand compliance within an

organization everything from product
development to brand identity what often

happens in a company is that employees
drift away from the brand standards

they’re not doing it intentionally but
they might create a new version of the

logo or color palette to fit what they
need at that moment in time a brand

stored watches over the organization and
reigns in any initiatives that aren’t in

compliance that’s why many companies
have the CEO or others senior officer of

the company serve as the brand steward
along with brand stewards you need brand

champions people to represent the brand
throughout the organization and there

should be one from each cross-functional
department of the company not just

marketing these brand champions form a
committee that should hold regular brand

review meetings they had the job of
reviewing brand performance measures

and recommending ways to improve
performance the committee should review

and update the brand drivers cutting out
the ones that are less relevant and

creating new ones that better reflect
the trends in the market at least once a

year the brand champions should conduct
a brand audit how is the brand

performing on all measures both
internally and externally what trends

are encouraging and which ones caused
some concern finally the brand team is

responsible for reinforcing and
energizing the company around the brand

and everything it stands for creating
branded spaces in your company lobby or

corporate training rooms is a great way
to do this events and employee

activities that celebrate brand
performance get people to see how

committed management is to the brand and
it helps clarify the brand’s essence

brands are both a financial and a
strategic asset they deserve all the

time and attention managing them as you
would any other critical asset of the




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